Although most arguments seem emotional, classical argument is an element of logic. Logic is an element of philosophy. At bottom, arguments are (or should be) rational.
Who’d’ve guessed, hmm?
There are several varieties of argument. However, in it’s most basic form, argument consists of:
1) Major premise;
2) Minor premise; and,
The classical formula for argument is probably: If A = B, then C. In this example, “A” could be the Minor Premise, “B” could be the Major Premise, and “C” could be the Conclusion. IF the minor premise “A” is equal to the major premise “B,” then the conclusion “C” must be true. If minor premise “A” and major premise “B” are not equal, then the conclusion “C” must be false.
The “argument” takes place over whether minor premise “A” and major premise “B” are, in fact, equal.