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Category Archives: Certification

Certification of “Foreign Law” vs. Verification


Seal of the Supreme Court of the United States

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In A.D. 1804, in the case of Church vs. Hubbart, the Supreme Court of the United States dealt with an issue of recognizing “foreign law” (of Portugal) and laid down some principles concerning what constitutes proper evidence of “foreign law”.  Unsworn certification” of foreign law was not enough.  For a foreign law to introduced as evidence, somebody had to verify its validity under oath.

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